412 is a LTR retrotransposon described in Drosophilamelanogaster (Poter et al. 1979; Yuki et al. 1986a). In embryos of the Drosophila strain Df(3L)AC1 the expression of 412 is regulated by the homeotic genes abdominal-A and abdominal-B. This element provides thus a useful early marker for the development of the gonadal mesoderm in Drosophila embryos (Brookman et al. 1992). 412 is similar to mdg1 and belongs to 412/mdg1 clade (Malik and Eickbush1999). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that this clade is closely related to errantiviruses. The integrase product encoded by 412/mdg1 elements has been related to a single copy gene, which codifies for a putative integrase protein (GIN-1) in humans and other vertebrates (Lloréns and Marín 2001). The genomic structure of 412 is 6.9 Kb in size including LTRs of 310 nt. The internal region of this element displays a Primer Binding Site (PBS) complementary to a tRNA Lys, three Open Reading Frames (ORFs) coding for a gag precursor, another ORF for a pol precursor, and a Polypurine Tract (PPT) adjacent to the 3′LTR (Yuki et al. 1986b).



Figure not to scale. If present, long terminal repeats (LTRs) have been highlighted in blue. Amino acid motifs noted with lines indicate the conserved residues in each protein domain, abbreviations below mean:

MA=matrix PR=protease DU or DUT=dUTPase TM=transmembrane TAV or IBMP=transactivator/viroplasmin or inclusion body matrix protein
CA=capsid RT=reverse transcriptase INT=Integrase CHR=chromodomain
NC=nucleocapsid RH=RNaseH SU=surface MOV=movement protein
PPT=polypurine tract PBS=primer binding site ATF=aphid transmission factor VAP=virion associated protein

Related literature

Genbank accession: X04132
Clade: 412/Mdg1
Cluster or genus: Undetermined
Branch or class: Branch 2
Family: Ty3/Gypsy
System: LTR retroelements
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Welcome to the Gypsy Database (GyDB) an open editable database about the evolutionary relationship of viruses, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and the genomic repeats where we invite all authors to contribute with their knowledge to improve and expand the topics.
Cite this project:

Llorens, C., Futami, R., Covelli, L., Dominguez-Escriba, L., Viu, J.M., Tamarit, D., Aguilar-Rodriguez, J. Vicente-Ripolles, M., Fuster, G., Bernet, G.P., Maumus, F., Munoz-Pomer, A., Sempere, J.M., LaTorre, A., Moya, A. (2011) The Gypsy Database (GyDB) of Mobile Genetic Elements: Release 2.0 Nucleic Acids Research (NARESE) 39 (suppl 1): D70-D74 doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq1061

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