Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV) is the type species of the Petuvirus genus of Caulimoviridae plant virus family and represents the only member of this genus because of none new tentative species has been yet reported [International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), Fauquet et al. 2005]. This pararetrovirus was first detected in Petunia x hybrida cv. Himmelsroeschen by electron microscopy (Lesemann and Casper 1973) but has subsequently been reported in other Petunia species (Richert-Pöggeler et al. 2002). According to Llorens et al 2009, Petuvirus genus and consequently PVCV element, although falls more-or-less close to Class 1, constitutes an independent class (Class 4) in the phylogenetic study.

PVCV consists of unenveloped isometric particles of 43-46 nm in diameter (for more details also see ICTVdb) which genome, of circular dsDNA 7206 bp long, is organized into a large Open reading frame (ORF) (even if the first sequence deposited by Richert-Pöggeler and Shepherd 1997 showed two overlapping ORFs). The long encoded polyprotein of about 238 kD contains a putative movement protein typical of caulimoviruses, a putative integrase (INT) region similar to those coded by LTR retrotransposons, and the Ty3/Gypsy-like coat (gag) and pol domains (protease, reverse transcriptase and RNaseH) (Richert-Pöggeler and Shepherd 1997; Harper et al. 2002). In contrast to other pararetrovirus which present a large consensus RNA-binding sequence associated to the putative COAT-gag region -due to the presence of an additional cysteine at the -2 position (C-X-C-X2-C-X4-H-X4-C )-(Hull 1996; Bouhida et al. 1993), PVCV contains the same cys-motif observed in the retroelement consensus RNA-binding sequence (C-X2-C-X4-H-X4-C) (Richert-Pöggeler and Shepherd 1997). The INT protein of the retroviruses and retrotransposons is known to be the only protein required for the integration process, therefore the presence of a probable integrase function in the genome of PVCV suggests that it may exist both as a transmissible caulimovirus and as a retrotransposon potentially able to transpose in the Petunia genome (Richert-Pöggeler and Shepherd 1997). In contrast to some other caulimoviruses, PVCV genome lacks both the transactivator (TAV) and aphid transmission functions (ATF). The absence of an insect acquisition gene may explain the limited hosts range in nature (it has been found only in Petunia spp. in which the virus is transmitted vertically and horizontally, Richert-Pöggeler and Shepherd 1997; Richert-Pöggeler et al. 2002; Richert-Pöggeler et al. 2003).



Figure not to scale. If present, long terminal repeats (LTRs) have been highlighted in blue. Amino acid motifs noted with lines indicate the conserved residues in each protein domain, abbreviations below mean:

MA=matrix PR=protease DU or DUT=dUTPase TM=transmembrane TAV or IBMP=transactivator/viroplasmin or inclusion body matrix protein
CA=capsid RT=reverse transcriptase INT=Integrase CHR=chromodomain
NC=nucleocapsid RH=RNaseH SU=surface MOV=movement protein
PPT=polypurine tract PBS=primer binding site ATF=aphid transmission factor VAP=virion associated protein

Related literature

Genbank accession: 14575752
Clade: '
Cluster or genus: Petuvirus
Branch or class: Class 4
Family: Caulimoviridae
System: LTR retroelements
Explore the Tree Life Project
Petunia hybr.jpg
Petunia spp
Wikimedia commons, courtesy of Kor!An author
Browse all elements

Welcome to the Gypsy Database (GyDB) an open editable database about the evolutionary relationship of viruses, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and the genomic repeats where we invite all authors to contribute with their knowledge to improve and expand the topics.
Cite this project:

Llorens, C., Futami, R., Covelli, L., Dominguez-Escriba, L., Viu, J.M., Tamarit, D., Aguilar-Rodriguez, J. Vicente-Ripolles, M., Fuster, G., Bernet, G.P., Maumus, F., Munoz-Pomer, A., Sempere, J.M., LaTorre, A., Moya, A. (2011) The Gypsy Database (GyDB) of Mobile Genetic Elements: Release 2.0 Nucleic Acids Research (NARESE) 39 (suppl 1): D70-D74 doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq1061

Contact - Announcements - Acknowledgments - Terms of use and policy - Help - Donate
Donating legal disclaimer - Terms and conditions of the donation