Three Retrovirus-like Element-Isoleucine (RTVL-I) sequences were characterized inserted in the haptoglobin gene cluster of primates (Maeda 1985; Maeda and Kim 1990). Two of these, RTVL-Ia and RTVL-Ic, are inserted in the first intron of the HPR gene and at the 3'-end of the haptoglobin-related (Hpr) gene, respectively. The third copy (RTVL-Ib) is inserted in the intergenic region between HPR and HPP genes within the chimpanzee three-gene cluster (HP-HPR-HPP). The haptoglobin gene cluster has been expanded and contracted during the evolution of primates, this evidence was associated with gene conversion events and mutations induced by retroviral and other sequence insertions (McEvoy and Maeda 1988).

The genomic structure of RTVL-Ia is 9.22 Kb in size including LTRs of 509 and 514 nt, respectively. The internal region of this retrovirus displays a Primer Binding Site (PBS) complementary to a tRNAIle, three Open Reading Frames (ORFs) for gag-pro, pol, and int genes characteristic of retroviruses, several sequence frames that appear to be the remains of a putative corrupted ORF env interrupted by an Alu insertion, and also a Polypurine Tract (PPT) adjacent to the 3´LTR (Maeda and Kim 1990).



Figure not to scale. If present, long terminal repeats (LTRs) have been highlighted in blue. Amino acid motifs noted with lines indicate the conserved residues in each protein domain, abbreviations below mean:

MA=matrix PR=protease DU or DUT=dUTPase TM=transmembrane TAV or IBMP=transactivator/viroplasmin or inclusion body matrix protein
CA=capsid RT=reverse transcriptase INT=Integrase CHR=chromodomain
NC=nucleocapsid RH=RNaseH SU=surface MOV=movement protein
PPT=polypurine tract PBS=primer binding site ATF=aphid transmission factor VAP=virion associated protein

Related literature

Genbank accession: M92067
Clade: Undetermined
Cluster or genus: Gammaretrovirus
Branch or class: Class 1
Family: Retroviridae
System: LTR retroelements
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Welcome to the Gypsy Database (GyDB) an open editable database about the evolutionary relationship of viruses, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and the genomic repeats where we invite all authors to contribute with their knowledge to improve and expand the topics.
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Llorens, C., Futami, R., Covelli, L., Dominguez-Escriba, L., Viu, J.M., Tamarit, D., Aguilar-Rodriguez, J. Vicente-Ripolles, M., Fuster, G., Bernet, G.P., Maumus, F., Munoz-Pomer, A., Sempere, J.M., LaTorre, A., Moya, A. (2011) The Gypsy Database (GyDB) of Mobile Genetic Elements: Release 2.0 Nucleic Acids Research (NARESE) 39 (suppl 1): D70-D74 doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq1061

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